[70] Michael D. Higgins became the ninth President of Ireland on 11 November 2011.[71]. The large areas of peat bog to be found throughout the country are a notable feature of the landscape. The Jack Lynch Tunnel, under the River Lee in Cork, and the Limerick Tunnel, under the River Shannon, were two major projects outside Dublin.[163]. [62] The long history of agricultural production coupled with modern agricultural methods, such as pesticide and fertiliser use, has placed pressure on biodiversity. [195] The vast majority (92%) are under the patronage of the Catholic Church. The Local Government Reform Act 2014 provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities – twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils. Ireland is the 2nd most expensive country in Western Europe (2 out of 18) Cost of living in Ireland is more expensive than in 95% of countries in the World (5 out of 75) Change the currency: Other currency In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Go rest. In the year 1990, the Irish Wildlife Conservancy declared the northern lapwing bird as the national bird of the Republic of Ireland, while the Eurasian oystercatcher acts as the national bird for Northern Ireland.. [85] Ireland's air facilities were used by the United States military for the delivery of military personnel involved in the 2003 invasion of Iraq through Shannon Airport. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion." Abortion had been banned throughout the period of the Irish state, first through provisions of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and later by the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement, was approved in 1998 in referendums north and south of the border. Prominent writers in the Irish language are Pádraic Ó Conaire, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Séamus Ó Grianna, and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill. The Irish delegates set up headquarters at Hans Place in Knightsbridge, and it was here in private discussions that the decision was taken on 5 December to recommend the treaty to Dáil Éireann. Ireland is the 2 nd largest island of the British Isles and lies in the west of Great Britain. Ireland owes its current rate of multilingualism to the 143 percent increase in foreign nationals living in Ireland from 2002 to 2011. Ireland became the main destination for US corporate tax inversions from 2009–2016 (mostly pharmaceutical), peaking with the blocked $160bn Allergan/Pfizer inversion (world's largest inversion, and circa 85% of Irish GNI*). [201][202], Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Ireland has been a member state of the European Union since 1973, but is not part of the Schengen Area. Their withdrawal from the over-borrowed Irish credit system would precipitate a deep Irish property correction which would then lead to the collapse of the Irish banking system. How can this be increased? Ireland is the 2 nd largest island of the British Isles and lies in the west of Great Britain. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." Dublin is home to the third-largest walled city parks in Europe; Phoenix Park. [35] They objected most to the fact that the state would remain part of the British Empire and that members of the Free State Parliament would have to swear what the Anti-treaty side saw as an oath of fidelity to the British King. Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Irish people. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof. [223] Gaelic settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Kells, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent. [199] Primary, secondary and higher (university/college) level education are all free in Ireland for all EU citizens. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. [32] The Irish Republic's Ministry of Dáil Éireann sent a delegation under Ceann Comhairle (Head of Council, or Speaker, of the Daíl) Seán T. O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but it was not admitted. The pubs of Ireland are a great place to socialize, grab a bite, join a sing-a-long, sample the local libations and absorb a bit of the fun and jovial Irish pub culture. The Leaving Certificate, which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system. On the other hand, the currency used in Northern Ireland is the Pound Sterling normally symbolized by £. Numerous Irish novelists emerged during the 19th century, including Maria Edgeworth, John Banim, Gerald Griffin, Charles Kickham, William Carleton, George Moore, and Somerville and Ross. The Irish Potato Famine, also known as the Great Hunger, began in 1845 when a fungus-like organism called Phytophthora infestans (or P. infestans) spread rapidly throughout Ireland. Where and When is IST Observed? The shamrock, a type of clover, has been a national symbol of Ireland since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St. Patrick's Day. [109] In March 2016 the unemployment rate was reported by the CSO to be 8.6%, down from a peak unemployment rate of 15.1% in February 2012. Advertisements; Irish people around the world. The Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923) was the consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. There have been significant efforts to increase the use of renewable and sustainable forms of energy in Ireland, particularly in wind power, with 3,000 MegaWatts[153] of wind farms being constructed, some for the purpose of export. The head of state - the president - mostly has ceremonial powers. Other significant Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church and Methodist Church. Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The Cliffs of Moher on the coast of County Clare, Ireland, just south of Galway Bay. The chief of state is the president and the head of government is the Taoiseach (prime minister). With the hope of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war through Ireland's engagement in the war, Redmond and his Irish National Volunteers supported the UK and its Allies. Magnet attracts former Digicel CEO to managing director role. [219] As the Romans never conquered Ireland, architecture of Greco-Roman origin is extremely rare. While daily attendance was 13% in 2006, there was a reduction in weekly attendance from 81% in 1990 to 48% in 2006, although the decline was reported as stabilising. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues. [242] This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish, oysters, mussels and other shellfish, and the wide range of hand-made cheeses that are now being produced across the country. Washed by abundant rain, the country’s pervasive grasslands create a green-hued landscape that is responsible for the popular sobriquet Emerald Isle. Dependent on agriculture, Ireland was long among Europe’s poorest regions, a principal cause of mass migration from Ireland, especially during the cycle of famine in the 19th century. [248], The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union, which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara, who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in 2009.[249]. GNI* is 30% below GDP (or, GDP is 143% of GNI). Negotiations began and in 1972 the Treaty of Accession was signed. The average life expectancy in Ireland in 2016 was 81.8 years (OECD 2016 list), with 79.9 years for men and 83.6 years for women. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. The pro-treaty IRA disbanded and joined the new National Army. Winter Time & DST. [168] In 2014, 36.3% of births were to unmarried women. Ports Ireland's major ports are in Cork (Port of Cork), Rosslare (Rosslare Europort), Waterford (Port of Waterford), and Dublin. [244] They are administered by the Gaelic Athletics Association on an all-Ireland basis. The President is the formal Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but in practice these Forces answer to the Government via the Minister for Defence. In the west and northwest as well as in the east, the mountains are composed mainly of granite. The flatness of the central lowland—which lies for the most part between 200 and 400 feet (60 and 120 metres) above sea level—is relieved in many places by low hills between 600 and 1,000 feet (180 to 300 metres) in elevation. In Scotland, there was an even earlier recording of a variation of the name Biden through Walter de Bydun in 1143-47. The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality. This first Dáil in January 1919 issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed an Irish Republic. That means no grudges with other countries, no wars to send our kids off to and the ability to sleep sound at night. [63][151] Natural gas extraction previously occurred at the Kinsale Head until its exhaustion. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country. Explore Dublin's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Local authorities are responsible for matters such as planning, local roads, sanitation, and libraries. Ireland is a single island, situated next to Britain, but there are two countries on the island 2. Until the 15th century the Irish belonged to the Celtic Church, and mass was universally given in Gaelic, not Latin (as was the norm then). [9] The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom. Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann),[a] is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. First centuries of English rule (c. 1166–c. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ) is Ireland's public service broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee and advertising. With regard to Northern Ireland's status, it said that the UK Government's "clearly-stated preference is to retain Northern Ireland’s current constitutional position: as part of the UK, but with strong links to Ireland".[50]. Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collins, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it".[36]. Ireland is an island in north-western Europe which has been divided politically since 1920. [124] In 1999, the entire country was effectively "turned into an IFSC" with the reduction of Irish corporation tax from 32% to 12.5% (the birth of Ireland's "low-tax" model). Yet, Ireland was the last Western European country to adopt Catholicism. The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. [169] Annual population growth rates exceeded 2% during the 2002–2006 intercensal period, which was attributed to high rates of natural increase and immigration. Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in 2001. Ireland is also renowned for its wealth of folklore, from tales of tiny leprechauns with hidden pots of gold to that of the patron saint, Patrick, with his legendary ridding the island of snakes and his reputed use of the three-leaved shamrock as a symbol for the Christian Trinity. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power. After six years, he went home and studied religion to become an ordained priest. [16] It also performs well in several national performance metrics including quality of life, healthcare, freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. In the 2006 census, 39% of the population regarded themselves as competent in Irish. River Shannon, which traverses the central lowlands, is the longest river in Ireland at 386 kilometres or 240 miles in length. 1. [110] In addition to unemployment, net emigration from Ireland between 2008 and 2013 totalled 120,100,[111] or some 2.6% of the total population according to the Census of Ireland 2011. [22] In an Irish republican context it is often referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". The other independent national television channels are Virgin Media One, Virgin Media Two, Virgin Media Three and TG4, the latter of which is a public service broadcaster for speakers of the Irish language. And Ireland wouldn't be the only place where that type existed in Britain or Ireland. [98] Indeed, foreign multinationals are the driver of Ireland's economy, employing a quarter of the private sector workforce,[99] and paying 80% of Irish business taxes. Ireland is famous for its musical culture. [111], Ireland exited its EU-IMF bailout programme on 15 December 2013. – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green). [23], From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. [157] Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland, although Ryanair is the country's largest airline. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers. British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty. Anti-treaty forces, led by Éamon de Valera, objected to the fact that acceptance of the treaty abolished the Irish Republic of 1919 to which they had sworn loyalty, arguing in the face of public support for the settlement that the "people have no right to do wrong". Ireland adopted the euro currency in 2002 along with eleven other EU member states. Ireland is known for the full Irish breakfast, which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. Ireland is called the Emerald Isle because of its vividly green grasslands. The country had a governor-general (representing the monarch), a bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council", and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council. The greatest distance from north to south in the island is 302 miles (486 km), and from east to west it is 171 miles (275 km). [107] Following three years of contraction, the economy grew by 0.7% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012. Northern Ireland makes up the northeastern part of the island 5. Ireland is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean – by the Celtic Sea in the south; by the St. George’s Channel in the southeast and by the Irish Sea in the east. This commenced on 24 April 1916 with the declaration of independence. [100][101][102] 14 of Ireland's top 20 firms (by 2017 turnover) are US-based multinationals[103] (80% of foreign multinationals in Ireland are from the US;[104][105] there are no non-US/non-UK foreign firms in Ireland's top 50 firms by turnover, and only one by employees, that being German retailer Lidl at No. Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland who meets the requirements for being an Irish citizen, such as birth on the island of Ireland to an Irish or British citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live in Northern Ireland or the Republic without restriction on their residency,[79] may exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship, such as an Irish passport. 19. Following in the tradition of acclaimed practitioners, principally Oscar Wilde, Literature Nobel Prize laureates George Bernard Shaw (1925) and Samuel Beckett (1969), playwrights such as Seán O'Casey, Brian Friel, Sebastian Barry, Brendan Behan, Conor McPherson and Billy Roche have gained popular success. 8 items. 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